Republic of Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan

Legal system

The legal system of Kazakhstan is based on the Roman-Germanic Law System. The main source of law in Kazakhstan is the following types of regulatory legal acts: 

  • legislative acts: constitutional laws, decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan having the force of constitutional law; codes; laws, decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan having the force of law; resolutions of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan, resolutions of the Senate and the Majilis. 
  • subordinate acts: normative decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan; normative decrees of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan; regulatory legal orders of ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other heads of central governmental authorities, regulatory legal orders of central governmental authorities and normative decrees of the Central Election Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Economy and financial sector

The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. Since January 1, 2015 the Republic is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union. Gross domestic product: 179.3 billion USD (2018) GDP per capita: 9,812.60 USD (2018). 

Main economy sectors: production of oil, gas, uranium, non-ferrous and ferrous metals; as well as coal, iron ore, manganese, chromites, lead, zinc, copper, titanium; production of locomotives, passenger and freight cars, power units, cars, tractors and other agricultural machinery, construction materials, food products. 

Main export articles: oil and oil products, metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat.

Main import articles: machinery and equipment, metal products, food products.

The financial sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan is represented by the National Bank, the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Regulation and Development of Financial Market, banks, organizations carrying out certain types of banking operations, JSC "KazPochta", microcredit organizations, consumer cooperatives, pawnshops, operators of international money transfer systems, insurance companies, stock exchange, professional securities market participants, insurance agents, Development Bank of Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan has a two-tier banking system. The National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the central bank and represents the upper (first) tier of the banking system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. All other banks represent the lower (second) tier of the banking system except for the Development Bank of Kazakhstan, which has a special legal status.

Financial Intelligence Unit

The Kazakh national financial intelligence unit (FIU) in the Financial Monitoring Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan established pursuant to the Kazakh Presidential Decree dated January 28, 2021.

The Financial Monitoring Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the government authority directly subordinated and accountable to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan that is in charge of general oversight of the anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing efforts and responsible for preventing, detecting, disrupting, solving and investigating economic and financial offences that fall within the purview of the Agency. 

Structurally, the Financial Monitoring Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan includes the Economic Investigation Service which is composed of financial monitoring intelligence and investigation units that take measures to prevent, detect, disrupt, solve and investigate crimes and offences as prescribed by national legislation.

The Head of the Kazakh Delegation to the EAG is Chairman of the Financial Monitoring Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan Mr. Zhanat Elimanov.

Agencies involved in the AML/CFT system

Criminal justice authorities and operational agencies:

Legal framework

International cooperation

Member of the UN, founding member of the CIS, Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), as well as member of other international organizations. In 2004 Kazakhstan became one of the founding states of the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG), and in 2012 – of the Council of Heads of Financial Intelligence Units of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Council of HoFIU CIS).

FIU of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been a member of the Egmont Group since July 2011. 

EAG MEMBER-STATES
Republic of Belarus

The legal system of Belarus belongs to the so-called Roman-Germanic Law Family. The main source of law in Belarus are regulatory legal acts. The Constitution has the highest legal force among legislative acts. 

Republic of India

India has a federal system consisting of the Union or Central Government, and the State Governments. Legislative power is exercised by the Parliament consisting of two houses, namely, Rajya Sabha (Council of States) as the upper house, and the Lok Sabha (House of the People) as the lower house. Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution.

Republic of Kazakhstan

The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. Since January 1, 2015 the Republic is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.

People�s Republic of China

China has a mixed legal system. The legislative branch is represented by the National People’s Congress (NPC), which is the highest agency of state power. The NPC elects all supervisory, executive, judicial, and prosecutorial agencies of the country and has authority over local people's congresses across the country.

Kyrgyz Republic

Kyrgyzstan's legal system is based on the Roman-Germanic Law System. In Kyrgyzstan all regulatory legal acts (RLA) are divided into laws and subordinate acts.

The main law of the State is the Constitution adopted by referendum in 2010.

The head of the State is the President. The President is elected for 6 years by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic. 

Russian Federation

Russia is a democratic federal presidential-parliamentary republic. Legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly (Parliament), while executive power is vested in the Government.

Russia’s main exports are hydrocarbons, metals, chemicals, machinery, equipment, weapons and food.

Republic of Tajikistan

The legal system of Tajikistan belongs to the Roman-Germanic Law Family.

The Constitution is the main law of the State, it was adopted on November 6, 1994. The Majlisi Oli – Parliament of Tajikistan – is the highest representative and legislative body, consisting of two Majlisi – Majlisi Milli (Upper Chamber) and Majlisi Namoyandagon (Lower Chamber).

Turkmenistan

Legal system of Turkmenistan is based on continental legal tradition.

The economy of Turkmenistan adheres to the model of socially oriented market economy, which is developing by export-oriented and import-substituting approach.

Republic of Uzbekistan

The legal system of the Republic of Uzbekistan is based on the Roman-Germanic Law System. The Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted on December 8, 1992.

According to the Constitution, the system of state power of the Republic of Uzbekistan is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial ones.

EAG MEMBER-STATES
Republic of Belarus
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Republic of Belarus

The legal system of Belarus belongs to the so-called Roman-Germanic Law Family. The main source of law in Belarus are regulatory legal acts. The Constitution has the highest legal force among legislative acts.